Before reservists can be mobilised and sent on
operations, a Call Out Order has to be signed by the Defence Secretary. He
has the power to authorise the use of reserves in situations of war or on
humanitarian and peacekeeping operations.
Before they are sent to
their postings, reservists must undergo a period of induction where they
are issued with equipment, given medical examinations and receive any
specialist training relevant to their operations. For the TA and the RMR,
this takes place at the new Reserves Training and Mobilisation Centre.
the Reserve Forces Act 1996, principal call out powers would be brought
into effect in a crisis by the issue of a call out order. Members of the
Reserve Forces are then liable for service anywhere in the world, unless
the terms of service applicable in individual cases restrict liability to
service within the UK
out powers are vested in and authorised by Her Majesty the Queen who may
make an order authorising call-out:
it appears to her that national danger is imminent
that a great emergency has arisen
in the event of an actual or apprehended attack on the
Secretary of State for Defence may make an order authorising call out:
it appears to him that warlike preparations are in preparation or
it appears to him that it is necessary or desirable to use armed
forces on operations outside the
UK for the protection of life or property.
for operations anywhere in the world for the alleviation of distress
or the preservation of life or property in time of disaster or
normal circumstances, the maximum continuous periods of permanent service
which individuals can serve under the above powers are respectively three
years, twelve months and nine months. In exceptional circumstances the
three years may be increased to five and the twelve months to two years
but under the third power, no extensions can be ordered beyond the maximum
of nine months. Under each power, provisions also limit the maximum
aggregated time a reservist can spend in permanent service over given
lengths of time.
and employers may apply for deferral of or exemption from call out. It is
recognised that those called out may not find the outcomes of their
initial applications to their satisfaction. Therefore a system of
arbitration has been set up.
Reserve Forces Act 1996 (RFA96) introduced two new types of reserve
categories: Higher Readiness Reserves and Sponsored Reserves.
Readiness Reserve (HRR): these
are individuals, serving either as members of the volunteer reserves or as
individual reserves, who have taken additional liability for call out at
any time. They have skills that are in short supply in both the regular
and reserve forces. Typically these might be linguists, intelligence
staff, media operations staff and specialist support staff.
be a HRR, a reservist must sign an agreement to that affect and his
civilian employer must agree in writing, to his doing so. An agreement,
that may be followed by successive agreements, will be for one year.
Whilst the agreement is in force the reservist may be called up to serve
for up to nine months continuous service. As for other call-out powers,
appeals against call-out by reservists or employers may be heard.
HRR has largely fallen into abeyance as the terms and conditions of
service proved to be unattractive. The MoD has largely been able to
attract sufficient numbers of reservists to serve on mobilised service and
Full Time Reserve Service (FTRS).
are a number of support functions that are carried out by civilians but
which in war are carried out by service personnel, because servicemen must
carry out the function on operations. This new category of reserve will
allow some of these tasks to be put out to contract, providing that the
contractor employs in his workforce a sufficient number of employees
willing to serve as members of a reserve force in the Sponsored Reserve
category. If the task was required to be carried out operationally, these
employees could be called out to continue providing the required support
as servicemen. Sponsored Reserves will have their own call out power and
be subject to no other. This and their conditions of service will are
tailored to the commercial aspects of the concept.
Reserve Forces Act (RFA)
Enables reimbursement to be made to Employers and Reservists for some of
the additional costs of employees being called out. Some reservists will
have financial commitments commensurate with their civilian salary and so
provisions are in place to minimise financial hardship.
MoD is also able to offset the indirect costs of employees being called
out incurred by an employer, for example, the need to recruit and train
temporary replacements. If employers or reservists are dissatisfied with
the financial assistance awarded they may appeal to tribunals set up for
and Part Time Service: One
provision of the RFA 96 is that reservists can now undertake periods of
full or part time employment with the Armed Forces. This is not a call-out
but a voluntary arrangement to make it possible for the Services to make
more flexible use of their manpower assets. There are no fixed time
limits. If a task needs doing, there is sufficient budget and a suitable
volunteer is available for the job, then it can be done.
soldiers are called-out using the same procedures as for Individual
Reservist (IR) - ie. they are sent a Call-Out Notice specifying the time,
date and place to which they are to report. If TA Units or Sub-Units are
called-out, they form up with their vehicles and equipment at their TA
Centres or other designated locations. They would then be deployed by
land, sea and air to their operational locations in the UK
or overseas. However, if TA personnel are called-out as individuals, they
would report to a Temporary Mobilisation Centre where they would be
processed before posting to reinforce a unit or HQ.
IR are required to keep at
home an Instruction Booklet (AB 592A), their ID card and a personalised
Booklet (AB 592B). The AB 592A provides IR with general instructions on
what they have to do if mobilised. It contains a travel warrant and a
special cash order. The AB 592A is computer produced and updated quarterly
as required to take account of such changes as address, medical category
and age. It explains where the reservist is to report on mobilisation and
arrangements for pay and allotments, next-of-kin, clothing held etc.
present legislation IR may only be mobilised if called-out by Queen's
Order. Mobilisation may involve only a few individuals/units or any number
up to general mobilisation when all are called out. If mobilisation is
authorised Notices of Call-Out are despatched to those IR concerned by
Recorded Delivery as the legal notification. Announcements of call-out are
also made by the press, radio and television.
the Reserve Forces Act 1996, IR are liable to call-out under the same new
provisions as described above for the TA. In addition, the Act brings the
conditions relating to all three Services in line and includes officers
and pensioners who were previously covered by separate legislation/Royal
Pay: TA personnel
are paid for every hour of training. They also receive an annual bonus,
known as a bounty, subject to achieving a minimum time commitment. Travel
costs for training are refunded. As of April 2007, daily rates of pay are
the same for TA personnel and their Regular Army equivalents. The latest
2007 rates are £39.80 (starting rate) for a Private to £125.75 for a Major
(mid rate). The exact rate also varies according to particular trade and
type of commitment.
Hourly income is taxable, but the Annual Bounty is a tax-free lump sum.
The value of the bounty depends on the specific unit and individual
training requirement but, on a higher commitment, TA soldiers and officers
start by receiving £395 in their first year. After five years satisfactory
service, this rises to £1,556.
The annual training commitment to qualify for bounty is:
In each case, individuals
may attend one or more courses aggregated to at least eight days duration
in lieu of camp, with the balance of seven days being carried out in extra
Pensions: Provision has been made in RFA 96 for the protection of
Reservist pension rights in the event of call up. The MoD is permitted to
pay the employers contributions to a civilian pension scheme.
Two structures have been
set up within the Territorial Army in order to improve management of
The role of the first is to
centralise the coordination of all personnel management for the TA,
bringing it more into line with the regular Army and also providing a
single focus for identifying and notifying individuals for mobilisation,
while the second is in charge of administrative preparation, individual
training and provision of human resources requirements of individual
reservists. The RTMC, which was inaugurated in April 1999, managed a first
group of reservists in May 1999 for the British forces stationed in Bosnia
Some 6,800 volunteers were
recruited in 2006 (year to October). In spite of these efforts, there
appears to have been a constant decline in the number of reservists. The
drop-out rate among volunteers can be as high as 30% in the three first
years of their engagement.